A. Glossary

$Revision: 1.3 $
$Date: 2002/08/14 13:20:17 $

Analysis The core stage of the investigation of functional images within the toolbox, usually involving statistical algorithms acting upon a time series of volumes. It comes directly after the pre-processing stage, and before the post-processing one.
   
Axial slice See Transversal slice
   
Coronal slice A slice taken through a spatial volume. For the example of a person, this would be like looking at them from the front. As such, the slice index goes from posterior-anterior, or back-to-front.
   
Experiment A term used to describe the entire set from which results are derived. An experiment can consist of several trials over different days, each of which may have several runs.
   
Frame The spatial data (which could be 2D or 3D) available at each time-point. Sometimes this is referred to as a scan or volume
   
  A portion of a window in the Lyngby toolbox that contains buttons that are related to each other. The main Lyngby window consists of a separate frame for each of the processing stages.
   
Layers A term used in image processing to describe individual images put together to form a single composite image viewed on common axes. Part of each image will be transparent, allowing the images underneath to show through. It is rather akin to the building-up of a cartoon frame from different ``cells'' - a character or item is drawn on clear plastic. The majority of the layer is transparent allowing anything underneath to show through. However, individual items are not transparent and will obscure those directly underneath.
   
Pane A portion of a window in the Lyngby toolbox that contains buttons that are related to each other. The Load New Data... window has three panes for the data parameters, external influences and the window control buttons.
   
Paradigm The ``activation'' signal, usually binary, that indicates when the subject in a functional imaging experiment is performing some task.
   
Post-processing The stage that comes after the analysis of the data. It usually consists of some form of analysis of the results sets, such as clustering of all the result parameters.
   
Pre-processing The stage after the data has been loaded into the toolbox, but before the data analysis is started. It is an initialization stage, used to get the data into the correct form for analysis by the usual algorithms. It usually involves some form of mean-removal, normalisation and/or removal of any unwanted scans.
   
Run The part of a time series of functional images where a certain task is performed. A run usually consists of several cycles of a paradigm. A single experiment can consist of several runs.
   
Sagittal slice A slice taken through a spatial volume. For the example of a person, this would be like looking at them from the side. As such, the slice index goes from left-to-right. Derived from the Latin word for ``arrow'', due to the direction of the cutting plane indicated by the angle of an arrow striking a person from the front.
   
Slice A spatial volume one voxel thick i.e. a 2-D image. Usually refers to an entire time-series (e.g. trial or run), and as such can be thought of as a volume with time as the third dimension.
   
Transversal slice A slice taken through a spatial volume. For the example of a person, this would be like looking at them from above. As such, the slice index goes from inferior-superior, or bottom-to-top.
   
Trial (as in ``single trial'') An experiment where only one task is performed, usually repeated several times.
   
Volume A spatial volume of slices, usually spatially adjacent, with a time reference. It can be thought of as a 4-D set, with three spatial dimensions and one time dimension.
   
Voxel An element of a spatial 3-D volume, usually with a time reference. It can be thought of as a 1-D time signal.
   

Finn Aarup Nielsen
2006-08-14