WOROI: 36 - Amygdala
 
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WOROI: 36 - Amygdala

Abbreviation: Amg
Abbreviation: NA

Variation: Corpus amygdaloideum
Variation: Amygdaloid body
Variation: Amygdaloid nucleus

External databases

MeSH UID: D000679
BrainInfo: 219
IBVD: Amygdala
CoCoMac: PVM81-Amg
Wikipedia: Amygdala
ICBM Label: 240

Taxonomy

ParentsSiblingsChildren
Basal Ganglia
Amygdala and Hippocampus
  Left amygdala
Right amygdala
Basolateral nuclear group
Corticomedial amygdaloid area
Central nuclear group
Central amygdaloid nucleus
Intercalate mass
Cortical amygdaloid nucleus
Medial amygdaloid nuclear group

Talairach coordinates

  x     y     z   Lobar anatomy WOBIB WOEXP
-18 -8 -13 Left amygdala 4 9
14 -9 -15 Right amygdala 4 9
-18 -2 -18 Left amygdala 4 10
18 -2 -17 Right amygdala 4 10
24 -7 -7 Right amygdala 39 132
17 -9 -15 Amygdala 47 151
-25 -9 -12 Amygdala 62 195
23 -4 -17 Right amygdala 66 204
-26 -14 -13 Left amygdala 71 220
-26 -6 -7 Left amygdala 71 220
20 -11 -13 Right amygdala 71 221
-24 -5 -21 Left amygdala 85 272
-15 0 -18 Amygdala 86 277
-26 -6 -13 Amygdala 93 295
-10 -2 4 Ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens, anterior thalamus, ventral tegmentum area, hypothalamus, amygdala 111 342
24 -8 -13 Right amygdala 115 347
28 -5 -13 Right amygdala 115 348
-20 -9 -18 Left amygdala 132 409
24 0 -16 Right amygdala 153 471
-22 2 -19 Left amygdala 153 471
-15 -7 -13 Left Amygdala 155 475
-23 -7 -15 Left amygdala 156 481
24 -7 -14 Right amygdala 156 481
-22 -10 -16 Left Amygdala 156 482
-21 1 -20 Left amygdala 173 530
17 -7 -18 Right amygdala 173 530
21 -9 -18 Right amygdala 173 531
-21 -9 -22 Left amygdala 173 532
-20 -6 -8 Amygdala or nucleus accumbens 177 543
16 -6 -16 Amygdala 177 544
-26 -2 -12 Amygdala 177 544

Summary

  x     y     z   Description
-21 -5 -14 Mean coordinate in left hemisphere
21 -7 -15 Mean coordinate in right hemisphere
21 -6 -14 Mean coordinate with ignored left/right
10 -14 -22 Minimum coordinate with ignored left/right
28 2 4 Maximum coordinate with ignored left/right
4 4 5 Standard deviation with ignored left/right
corner cube of WOROI: 36 - Amygdala

Text contexts

When compared to viewing emotionally neutral film excerpts, viewing erotic film excerpts was associated, for both genders, with bilateral blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal increases in the anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal, orbitofrontal, insular, and occipitotemporal cortices, as well as in the amygdala and the ventral striatumSherif Karama; Andre R. Lecours; Jean-Maxime Leroux; Pierre Bourgouin; Gilles Beaudoin; Sven Joubert; Mario Beauregard. Areas of brain activation in males and females during viewing of erotic film excerpts. Human Brain Mapping 16(1):1-13, 2002. PMID: 11870922. WOBIB: 4.
Moreover, direct gaze led to greater correlation between activity in the fusiform and the amygdala, a region associated with emotional responses and stimulus saliencyN. George; J. Driver; R. J. Dolan. Seen gaze-direction modulates fusiform activity and its coupling with other brain areas during face processing. NeuroImage 13(6 Pt 1):1102-12, 2001. PMID: 11352615. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2001.0769. WOBIB: 18.
Right amygdala and auditory cortex were activated only by unpleasant words, while left frontal pole was activated only by pleasant wordsRichard J. Maddock; Amy S. Garrett; Michael H. Buonocore. Posterior cingulate cortex activation by emotional words: fMRI evidence from a valence decision task. Human Brain Mapping 18(1):30-41, 2003. PMID: 12454910. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.10075. WOBIB: 39.
Deduction activated areas near right brain homologues of left language areas in middle temporal lobe, inferior frontal cortex and basal ganglia, as well as right amygdala, but not spatial-visual areasL. M. Parsons; D. Osherson. New Evidence for Distinct Right and Left Brain Systems for Deductive versus Probabilistic Reasoning. Cerebral Cortex 11(10):954-65, 2001. PMID: 11549618. WOBIB: 47.
Deactivations were observed in the posterior cingulate gyrus and in the amygdala and were right-lateralized in the prefrontal, parietal and middle temporal corticesAndreas Bartels; Semir Zeki. The neural basis of romantic love. NeuroReport 11(17):3829-3834, 2000. PMID: 11117499. WOBIB: 54.
Both strong and mild expressions of disgust activated anterior insular cortex but not the amygdala; strong disgust also activated structures linked to a limbic cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitMary L. Phillips; A. W. Young; C. Senior; M. Brammer; C. Andrew; A. J. Calder; E. T. Bullmore; D. I. Perrett; D. Rowland; Steven C. R. Williams; J. A. Gray; Anthony S. David. A specific neural substrate for perceiving facial expressions of disgust. Nature 389(6650):495-8, 1997. PMID: 9333238. DOI: 10.1038/39051. WOBIB: 71.
However, an additional analysis restricted to the subcortical and limbic system structures revealed bilateral activation of the amygdala in both target emotionsS. Aalto; P. Naatanen; E. Wallius; L. Metsahonkala; H. Stenman; P. M. Niem; H. Karlsson. Neuroanatomical substrata of amusement and sadness: a PET activation study using film stimuli. NeuroReport 13(1):67-73, 2002. PMID: 11924897. WOBIB: 88.
Unpleasant was distinguished from neutral or pleasant emotion by activation of the bilateral occipito-temporal cortex and cerebellum, and left parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala (P < 0Richard D. Lane; Eric M. Reiman; M. M. Bradley; P. J. Lang; Geoffrey L. Ahern; Richard J. Davidson; Gary E. Schwartz. Neuroanatomical correlates of pleasant and unpleasant emotion. Neuropsychologia 35(11):1437-44, 1997. PMID: 9352521. BrainMap: 276. WOBIB: 93.
Given the role of the amygdaloid complexes in the acquisition of emotionally influenced memories, the pattern of activation in the amygdala and the cortical areas provides a biological basis for the processing of some types of memory during REM sleepP. Maquet; J. Peters; J. Aerts; G. Delfiore; C. Degueldre; A. Luxen; G. Franck. Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid-eye-movement sleep and dreaming. Nature 383(6596):163-6, 1996. PMID: 8774879. WOBIB: 96.
People with Huntington's disease and people suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder show severe deficits in recognizing facial expressions of disgust, whereas people with lesions restricted to the amygdala are especially impaired in recognizing facial expressions of fearR. Sprengelmeyer; M. Rausch; U. T. Eysel; H. Przuntek. Neural structures associated with recognition of facial expressions of basic emotions. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 265(1409):1927-31, 1998. PMID: 9821359. WOBIB: 97.
Serotonin [5- hydroxytryptamine, (5-HT)] function influences normal fear as well as pathological anxiety, behaviors critically dependent on the amygdala in animal models and in clinical studiesAhmad R. Hariri; Venkata S. Mattay; Alessandro Tessitore; Bhaskar Kolachana; Francesco Fera; David Goldman; Michael F. Egan; Daniel R. Weinberger. Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 297(5580):400-3, 2002. PMID: 12130784. DOI: 10.1126/science.1071829. WOBIB: 115.
We now report that individuals with one or two copies of the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter polymorphism, which has been associated with reduced 5-HTT expression and function and increased fear and anxiety-related behaviors, exhibit greater amygdala neuronal activity, as assessed by BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging, in response to fearful stimuli compared with individuals homozygous for the long alleleAhmad R. Hariri; Venkata S. Mattay; Alessandro Tessitore; Bhaskar Kolachana; Francesco Fera; David Goldman; Michael F. Egan; Daniel R. Weinberger. Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 297(5580):400-3, 2002. PMID: 12130784. DOI: 10.1126/science.1071829. WOBIB: 115.
These results demonstrate genetically driven variation in the response of brain regions underlying human emotional behavior and suggest that differential excitability of the amygdala to emotional stimuli may contribute to the increased fear and anxiety typically associated with the short SLC6A4 alleleAhmad R. Hariri; Venkata S. Mattay; Alessandro Tessitore; Bhaskar Kolachana; Francesco Fera; David Goldman; Michael F. Egan; Daniel R. Weinberger. Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 297(5580):400-3, 2002. PMID: 12130784. DOI: 10.1126/science.1071829. WOBIB: 115.
RESULTS: REC AN women had significantly reduced [18F]altanserin binding relative to CW in mesial temporal (amygdala and hippocampus), as well as cingulate cortical regionsGuido K. Frank; Walter H. Kaye; Carolyn C. Meltzer; Julie C. Price; Phil Greer; Claire McConaha; Kelli Skovira. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa. Biological Psychiatry 52(9):896-906, 2002. PMID: 12399143. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 131.
We show that exposure to body expressions of fear, as opposed to neutral body postures, activates the fusiform gyrus and the amygdalaNouchine Hadjikhani; Beatrice de Gelder. Seeing fearful body expressions activates the fusiform cortex and amygdala. Current Biology 13(24):2201-2205, 2003. PMID: 14680638. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2003.11.049. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 153.
Areas showing consistent decreases during active tasks included posterior cingulate/precuneous (Brodmann area, BA 31/7), left (Bas 40 and 39/19) and right (BA 40) inferior parietal cortex, left dorsolateral frontal cortex (BA 8), left lateral inferior frontal cortex (BA 10/47), left inferior temporal gyrus (BA 20), a strip of medial frontal regions running along a dorsal-ventral axis (Bas 8, 9, 10, and 32), and the right amygdalaGordon L. Shulman; Julie A. Fiez; Maurizio Corbetta; Randy L. Buckner; Francis M. Miezin; Marcus E. Raichle; Steven E. Petersen. Common Blood Flow Changes across Visual Tasks: II. Decreases in Cerebral Cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9(5):648-663, 1997. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 173.

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