Richard D. Lane; Eric M. Reiman; Geoffrey L. Ahern; Gary E. Schwartz; Richard J. Davidson. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Happiness, Sadness, and Disgust.
The American Journal of Psychiatry 154(7):926-933, 1997.
OBJECTIVE: Happiness, sadness, and disgust are three emotions that differ in their valence (positive or negative) and associated action tendencies (approach or withdrawal). This study was designed to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of these discrete emotions. METHOD: Twelve healthy female subjects were studied. Positron emission tomography and [15O]H2O were used to measure regional brain activity. There were 12 conditions per subject: happiness, sadness, and disgust and three control conditions, each induced by film and recall. Emotion and control tasks were alternated throughout. Condition order was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across subjects. Analyses focused on brain activity patterns for each emotion when combining film and recall data. RESULTS: Happiness, sadness, and disgust were each associated with increases in activity in the thalamus and medial prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 9). These three emotions were also associated with activation of anterior and posterior temporal structures, primarily when induced by film. Recalled sadness was associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. Happiness was distinguished from sadness by greater activity in the vicinity of ventral mesial frontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: While this study should be considered preliminary, it identifies regions of the brain that participate in happiness, sadness, and disgust, regions that distinguish between positive and negative emotions, and regions that depend on both the elicitor and valence of emotion or their interaction.Asymmetry: -0.16963 (left: -1, right: +1)
VRML2 file (271 Kb)
+1: 1.00000 Richard D. Lane; Eric M. Reiman; Geoffrey L. Ahern; Gary E. Schwartz; Richard J. Davidson. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Happiness, Sadness, and Disgust. The American Journal of Psychiatry 154(7):926-933, 1997. PMID: 9210742. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 177.
+2: 0.76203 Richard D. Lane; Eric M. Reiman; M. M. Bradley; P. J. Lang; Geoffrey L. Ahern; Richard J. Davidson; Gary E. Schwartz. Neuroanatomical correlates of pleasant and unpleasant emotion. Neuropsychologia 35(11):1437-44, 1997. PMID: 9352521. BrainMap: 276. WOBIB: 93.
+3: 0.74396 Sherif Karama; Andre R. Lecours; Jean-Maxime Leroux; Pierre Bourgouin; Gilles Beaudoin; Sven Joubert; Mario Beauregard. Areas of brain activation in males and females during viewing of erotic film excerpts. Human Brain Mapping 16(1):1-13, 2002. PMID: 11870922. WOBIB: 4.
+4: 0.64890 L. M. Parsons; D. Osherson. New Evidence for Distinct Right and Left Brain Systems for Deductive versus Probabilistic Reasoning. Cerebral Cortex 11(10):954-65, 2001. PMID: 11549618. WOBIB: 47.
+5: 0.63840 Arne May; Anish Bahra; Christian Büchel; Richard S. J. Frackowiak; Peter J. Goadsby. Hypothalamic activation in cluster headache attacks. Lancet 352(9124):275-278, 1998. PMID: 9690407. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 137.
+6: 0.62303 Ron C. Kupers; J. M. Gybels; Albert Gjedde. Positron emission tomography study of a chronic pain patient successfully treated with somatosensory thalamic stimulation. Pain 87(3):295-302, 2000. PMID: 10963909. WOBIB: 62.
+7: 0.61380 A. M. Aupee; B. Desgranges; F. Eustache; C. Lalevee; V. de la Sayette; F. Viader; J. C. Baron. Voxel-based mapping of brain hypometabolism in permanent amnesia with PET. NeuroImage 13(6 Pt 1):1164-73, 2001. PMID: 11352622. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2001.0762. WOBIB: 119.
+8: 0.57350 A. Bahra; M. S. Matharu; Christian Büchel; Richard S. J. Frackowiak; P. J. Goadsby. Brainstem activation specific to migraine headache. Lancet 357(9261):1016-7, 2001. PMID: 11293599. WOBIB: 122.
+9: 0.54518 S. Nour; Claus Svarer; J. K. Kristensen; O. B. Paulson; I. Law. Cerebral activation during micturition in normal men. Brain 123 ( Pt 4):781-9, 2000. PMID: 10734009. WOBIB: 17.
+10: 0.53422 K. L. Casey; S. Minoshima; T. J. Morrow; R. A. Koeppe. Comparison of human cerebral activation pattern during cutaneous warmth, heat pain, and deep cold pain. Journal of Neurophysiology 76(1):571-81, 1996. PMID: 8836245. WOBIB: 102.
+11: 0.53330 Richard J. Maddock; Amy S. Garrett; Michael H. Buonocore. Posterior cingulate cortex activation by emotional words: fMRI evidence from a valence decision task. Human Brain Mapping 18(1):30-41, 2003. PMID: 12454910. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.10075. WOBIB: 39.
+12: 0.51431 Barbara Ravnkilde; Poul Videbech; Raben Rosenberg; Albert Gjedde; Anders Gade. Putative Tests of Frontal Lobe Function: A PET-Study of Brain Activation During Stroop's Test and Verbal Fluency. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 24(4):534-547, 2002. PMID: 12187466. DOI: 10.1076/jcen.24.4.534.1033. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 176.
+13: 0.47456 Robert J. Zatorre; Marilyn Jones-Gotman; Alan C. Evans; Ernst Meyer. Functional localization and lateralization of human olfactory cortex. Nature 360(6402):339-340, 1992. PMID: 1448149. DOI: 10.1038/360339a0. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 158.
+14: 0.45222 Andreas Bartels; Semir Zeki. The neural basis of romantic love. NeuroReport 11(17):3829-3834, 2000. PMID: 11117499. WOBIB: 54.
+15: 0.43444 P. E. Paulson; S. Minoshima; T. J. Morrow; K. L. Casey. Gender differences in pain perception and patterns of cerebral activation during noxious heat stimulation in humans. Pain 76(1-2):223-9, 1998. PMID: 9696477. WOBIB: 118.
+16: 0.43361 Tim Shallice; Paul Fletcher; Chris D. Frith; Paul Grasby; Richard S. J. Frackowiak; Raymond J. Dolan. Brain regions associated with acquisition and retrieval of verbal episodic memory. Nature 368(6472):633-635, 1994. PMID: 8145849. DOI: 10.1038/368633a0. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 159.
+17: 0.43190 M. Tillfors; T. Furmark; I. Marteinsdottir; Hċkan Fischer; A. Pissiota; B. Langstrom; M. Fredrikson. Cerebral blood flow in subjects with social phobia during stressful speaking tasks: a PET study. American Journal of Psychiatry 158(8):1220-6, 2001. PMID: 11481154. WOBIB: 77.
+18: 0.42603 Turhan Canli; Heidi Sivers; Susan L. Whitfield; Ian H. Gotlib; John E. Gabrieli. Amygdala response to happy faces as a function of extraversion. Science 296(5576):2191, 2002. PMID: 12077407. DOI: 10.1126/science.1068749. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 156.
+19: 0.41885 Nouchine Hadjikhani; Beatrice de Gelder. Seeing fearful body expressions activates the fusiform cortex and amygdala. Current Biology 13(24):2201-2205, 2003. PMID: 14680638. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2003.11.049. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 153.
+20: 0.40077 J. D. Bremner; R. B. Innis; T. White; M. Fujita; D. Silbersweig; A. W. Goddard; L. Staib; E. Stern; A. Cappiello; S. Woods; R. Baldwin; D. S. Charney. SPECT [I-123]iomazenil measurement of the benzodiazepine receptor in panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry 47(2):96-106, 2000. PMID: 10664825. WOBIB: 126.
+21: 0.40074 Mary L. Phillips; A. W. Young; C. Senior; M. Brammer; C. Andrew; A. J. Calder; E. T. Bullmore; D. I. Perrett; D. Rowland; Steven C. R. Williams; J. A. Gray; Anthony S. David. A specific neural substrate for perceiving facial expressions of disgust. Nature 389(6650):495-8, 1997. PMID: 9333238. DOI: 10.1038/39051. WOBIB: 71.
+22: 0.40016 Philip K. McGuire; C. J. Bench; C. D. Frith; I. M. Marks; Richard S. J. Frackowiak; R. J. Dolan. Functional anatomy of obsessive-compulsive phenomena. British Journal of Psychiatry 164(4):459-468, 1994. PMID: 8038933. WOBIB: 104.
+23: 0.39995 Eleanor A. Maguire; C. J. Mummery. Differential modulation of a common memory retrieval network revealed by positron emission tomography. Hippocampus 9(1):54-61, 1999. PMID: 10088900. WOBIB: 78.
+24: 0.39620 Greig I. de Zubicaray; Katie McMahon; Stephen J. Wilson; Santhi Muthiah. Brain activity during the encoding, retention, and retrieval of stimulus representations. Learning & Memory 8(5):243-251, 2001. PMID: 11584070. DOI: 10.1101/lm.40301. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 141.
Gordon L. Shulman; Julie A. Fiez; Maurizio Corbetta; Randy L. Buckner; Francis M. Miezin; Marcus E. Raichle; Steven E. Petersen. Common Blood Flow Changes across Visual Tasks: II. Decreases in Cerebral Cortex.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9(5):648-663, 1997.
-1: 0.00066 Stefan Geyer; Anders Ledberg; Axel Schleicher; Shigeo Kinomura; Thorsten Schormann; Uli Burgel; Torkel Klingberg; Jonas Larsson; Karl Zilles; Per E. Roland. Two different areas within the primary motor cortex of man. Nature 382(6594):805-807, 1996. PMID: 8752272. FMRIDCID: . WOBIB: 163.
-2: 0.00071 I. Indovina; J. N. Sanes. On somatotopic representation centers for finger movements in human primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area. NeuroImage 13(6 Pt 1):1027-34, 2001. PMID: 11352608. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2001.0776. WOBIB: 11.
-3: 0.00339 E. Hazeltine; Russell Poldrack; John D. E. Gabrieli. Neural activation during response competition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12(Supplement 2):118-29, 2000. PMID: 11506652. DOI: 10.1162/089892900563984. FMRIDCID: 2-2000-11173. WOBIB: 40.
-4: 0.00880 P. A. Gelnar; B. R. Krauss; P. R. Sheehe; N. M. Szeverenyi; A. V. Apkarian. A comparative fMRI study of cortical representations for thermal painful, vibrotactile, and motor performance tasks. NeuroImage 10(4):460-82, 1999. PMID: 10493903. DOI: 10.1006/nimg.1999.0482. WOBIB: 75.
R. A. Berman; C. L. Colby; C. R. Genovese; J. T. Voyvodic; B. Luna; K. R. Thulborn; J. A. Sweeney. Cortical networks subserving pursuit and saccadic eye movements in humans: an FMRI study.
Human Brain Mapping 8(4):209-25, 1999.