S. Nour; Claus Svarer; J. K. Kristensen; O. B. Paulson; I. Law. Cerebral activation during micturition in normal men.
Brain 123 ( Pt 4):781-9, 2000.
Specific cerebral lesions have shown the crucial role of the brain in the control of micturition. The precise identification of the anatomical cerebral structures involved in micturition can contribute to a better understanding of the control of micturition and the development of therapeutic models. Various neuropathological and animal studies have referred to the medulla oblongata, pons, limbic system, superior frontal lobe and premotor cortical regions as areas implicated in micturition control. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the activity of these areas during micturition can be confirmed by PET in normal men. The distribution of the regional cerebral blood flow after bolus injection of (15)O water was used as an indirect measure of cerebral activation. PET scans were performed during the following three conditions: (i) at rest with the bladder empty; (ii) during simulated micturition after instillation of isotonic saline into the urinary bladder; and (iii) the withholding of urine (saline). Normal micturition using this model was achieved in eight out of 12 right-handed normal subjects. The changes in bladder contraction, bladder pressure and intra-abdominal pressure were monitored on-line during the whole scanning session by a cystometry device. The images were analysed using statistical parametric mapping at a significance threshold of P < 0.05 with correction for multiple independent comparisons. Micturition versus rest was associated with bilateral activation of areas close to the postcentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, globus pallidus, cortex cerebelli, vermis and midbrain. On the left side, activation of the middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, superior precentral gyrus, thalamus and the caudal part of the anterior cingulate gyrus was seen, while on the right side we found activation in the supramarginal gyrus, mesencephalon and insula. When the threshold value was lowered to P < 0.001 (Z > 3.09) without correction for multiple comparisons, we found additional activation in the medial pontine tegmentum, mesencephalon, right thalamus, right middle frontal gyrus and left insula. When urine- withholding was compared with rest, the left insula showed a tendency to activate. We conclude from this study, in which urinary bladder contraction was verified cystometrically, that the onset and maintenance of micturition in normal men is associated with a vast network of cortical and subcortical regions, confirming observations from clinical and animal studies.Asymmetry: 0.39241 (left: -1, right: +1)
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Ian Law; Claus Svarer; Sĝren Holm; Olaf B. Paulson. The activation pattern in normal humans during suppression, imagination and performance of saccadic eye movements.
Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 161(3):419-434, 1997.
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